Nitu Singh, Ravindra Kumar and Aarti Malhosia
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas (GHG) and its atmospheric concentration is currently 50% higher than pre-industrial levels. Biochar, when applied to soils is reported to increase soil carbon sequestration and provide of her soil productivity benefits such as reduction of bulk density, enhancement of water-holding capacity and nutrient retention, stabilization of soil organic matter, improvement of microbial activities, and heavy-metal sequestration. Yearly net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could be decreased by a maximum of 1.8 PgCO2 -C equivalent (CO2 -Ce) per year, and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130 PgCO2 -Ce, without end angering food security, habitat or soil conservation. The potential threats to the sustainability of biochar systems, at each stage of the biochar life cycle, were reviewed many research papers. We propose that a sustainability framework for biochar could be adapted from existing frameworks developed for bioenergy sources. The current state of knowledge is based largely on limited small-scale studies under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. This review paper emphasizes to present the recent research works regarding climate change focusing on the properties of biochar and closely evaluated the literature concerning biochar’s stability.
Keywords: Greenhouse gas, soil organic matter, life cycle, and bioenergy sources.