Sher Singh Chopra
Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which alteration of brain neurotransmitters take place and these alterations applicable for producing symptoms like positive, negative and cognitive. What if a person interprets actual reality abnormally? Is it psychosis or is it schizophrenia? Comprehensive search reveals that people with schizophrenia seem like they have lost contact with reality. Comprehensive search reveals that people with schizophrenia seem like they have lost contact with reality and remitting disorder associated with significant impairments in social, vocational functioning and shortened lifespan. Actually patients Patients with schizophrenia also suffer disproportionately from mood symptoms and substance abuse, and approximately 10% die from suicide. Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, cardiovascular disease, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis-c virus are common physical health problems seen in people suffering from Schizophrenia, complications of pregnancy and birth in females also plays role in building schizophrenia. Neurotransmitter hypothesis considered as imbalance of dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, NMDA, acetylcholine, adrenaline and GABA, whereas enzymatic hypothesis such as acetylcholinesterase, catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase etc., are also involved. Antipsychotics agents are utilize in the treatment of schizophrenia and are proved to be effective in the management of hallucinations, delusions and thought disorders. This review also considered the behavioral animal models used for schizophrenia for evaluation of learning, construction, cognition, stress, hyperlocomotion and stereotypy activities for the diagnosis of schizophrenic symptoms.
Objective: Objective of this review is based on the study of various behavioral animal models used for schizophrenia and assessed the schizophrenic symptoms.
Methods: Various animal behavioral models used for the determining the schizophrenic symptoms, using the keywords animals behavioral models in schizophrenia or psychosis.
Result: Various animal behavioral models such as Actophotometer, Stereotype behaviors, Forced swimming test (FST), Passive avoidance test, Catatonia in rats, Foot-shock induced aggression and Swim induced grooming in mice were compiled in this review for easy learning or assessing behaviral parameters of schizophrenia.
Conclusion: In the previous clinical or preclinical studies symptoms like positive, negative, and cognitive are seen in schizophrenia affected people. Moreover, symptoms are assessed by conducting behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical estimation on rodent/human trial. Animal models have been based on the management of behavioral parameters believed to be involved in schizophrenia. This review provides a brief overview of behavioral animals models used for the diagnosis of schizophrenia
Keywords: Schizophrenia, actophotometer, stereotype behaviors, forced swimming test (fst), passive avoidance test, catatonia in rats, foot-shock induced aggression and swim induced grooming.