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Alzheimer’s Disease: An Update on Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy

https://doi.org/10.51514/JSTR.2.4.2020.19-24

Sher Singh Chopra*, Rampal Singh Negi and Vanshika

ABSTRACT

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neurodegenerative, progressive brain disorder and most common form of dementia. Dementia is a clinical condition characterized by progressive deterioration in cognitive domains, including memory, language, executive and visuospatial function, personality and behavior. Comprehensive search reveals that people with Alzheimer seem like they have lost their memory, challenges in planning or solving problems, gradually loss of capability to achieve normal task, puzzling day from night, loss of visualization and coordination, inappropriate use of words, inability to recognize and use familiar objects, mood change. Etiology of Alzheimer represent involvement of environmental factors, role of genes, social stressors, like discrimination or economic hardship, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuro-inflammation, synaptic dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, nutritional deficiencies, down’s syndrome, head injuries, cardiovascular disease ( high blood pressure, high cholesterol), lifestyle factors (lack of exercise, poor-quality sleep and a diet lacking fruit and vegetables), as well as metabolic conditions such as diabetes and obesity also plays role in building Alzheimer, while pathophysiology represents dysfunctional neurotransmission of acetylcholine, stress-associated signaling cascades (Gabanergic, glutamatergic, singling cascades) and abnormal extracellular accumulation of ß-amyloid plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated tau. Pharmacological agents are utilize in the management of Alzheimer and are proved to be effective in the controlling of dementia disorders.
Objective: Objective of this review paper is based on the study about pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease.
Methods: Several pathophysiological hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease were identified through searching relevant databases together with PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to the year 2020, using the keywords Alzheimer’s disease, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, pharmacotherapy.
Result: Alterations of ß-amyloid plaque deposition and NFTs of hyperphosphorylated tau were compiled in this article for easy learning of Alzheimer’s disease.
Conclusion: Alzheimer’s disease is a major illness/complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder, dementia or memory loss. This article targets to deliver a brief indication of neurotransmitter role as well as other pathophysiological variations in Alzheimer’s disease. Animal models and specific biomarkers will help to identify and develop novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, pharmacotherapy.